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Guillain-Barré syndrome (say "ghee-YAN bah-RAY") is a problem with your
nervous system. It causes muscle weakness, loss of
reflexes, and numbness or tingling in your arms, legs, face, and other parts of
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) can cause paralysis and
lead to death. But most people get better and have few lasting problems.
GBS is rare.
know what causes GBS. They think that the nerves are attacked by your body’s
own defense system (the immune system). This is called an
In GBS, the immune
system attacks the covering (myelin sheath) of certain nerves. This
causes nerve damage.
Infections that may trigger GBS
GBS usually begins to affect the nerves after you've had a
bacterial infection. Often it is after an infection of
the lungs or stomach and intestines.
Infections that may trigger
Symptoms of GBS
Symptoms usually start with numbness or tingling in the
fingers and toes. Over several days, muscle weakness in the legs and arms
develops. After about 4 weeks, most people begin to get better.
You may need to be treated in the hospital for the first few weeks. This
is because GBS can be deadly if weakness spreads to muscles that control
breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Call your doctor or get help right away if you think you might have GBS.
doctor will ask when your symptoms started and how they have changed. He or she
also may ask if you've had any recent infections.
Two signs are
important in helping your doctor decide if you have GBS:
Your doctor also may do tests, such as a
lumbar puncture and a
nerve conduction study.
If the diagnosis
isn't clear, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in the nervous
GBS usually is treated in the
hospital. The hospital staff will watch you carefully to be sure you don't get
worse or get an infection. Your breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure are
carefully tracked. Some people need a ventilator to help them breathe.
In the hospital, you may get a
plasma exchange or
intravenous immune globulin (IVIG).
These treatments may help your body fight the disease and
may speed your recovery if they are used when you first get GBS. You may need to stay in the hospital for weeks or longer, until your symptoms have improved.
Sometimes GBS can come back. Both plasma exchange and IVIG therapy may be needed to reduce the severity of a relapse.
You may need 3 to 6 months or longer to recover from GBS. And you may have to wait several months before you can return to your
Many people have long-term effects from GBS, such as numbness in the toes and fingers. In most cases, these problems won't get in the way of your daily life. Some people have more serious problems, such as long-term weakness or balance problems.
Support at home is important during this time. You
may need some help with some of your activities and chores until you're stronger.
Regular exercise can help you strengthen your weakened muscles. Talk to your doctor
about exercising during your recovery. If you have severe muscle weakness, you may need
Learning about Guillain-Barré syndrome:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and
Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, is the leading
U.S. federal government agency supporting research on brain and nervous system
disorders. It provides the public with educational materials and information
about these disorders.
This national nonprofit health agency is dedicated to
curing autoimmune diseases and relieving the suffering and the economic and
social impact of autoimmune diseases. AARDA brings professionals together in
the areas of education, research, and patient services. This group sponsors
physicians' conferences, research, legislative advocacy, and a national
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is
an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC works
with state and local health officials and the public to achieve better health
for all people. The CDC creates the expertise, information, and tools that
people and communities need to protect their health—by promoting health,
preventing disease, injury, and disability, and being prepared for new health
This organization is a good source of information and
support for people affected by Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or Chronic
Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP). It can direct people who have
long-term disability caused by GBS or CIDP to support groups and resources that
provide vocational, financial, and other assistance.
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It
has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and
diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website
offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing
age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can
sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
Other Works Consulted
Brannagan TH, Weimer LH (2010). Acquired neuropathies. In LP Rowland, TA Pedley, eds., Merritt's Neurology, 12th ed., pp. 822–837. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cortese I, et al. (2011). Evidence-based guideline update: Plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders: Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 76(3): 294–300.
Hughes RAC, et al. (2003). Practice parameter:
Immunotherapy for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology,
Hughes RAC, et al. (2012). Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (7).
Raphaël JC, et al. (2002). Plasma exchange for
Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2). Oxford: Update Software.
Ropper AH, Samuels MA (2009). Diseases of the peripheral nerves. In Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology, 9th ed., pp. 1251–1325. New York: McGraw-Hill.
October 14, 2011
Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine & Colin Chalk, MD, CM, FRCPC - Neurology
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